There are several best practices that you can follow to enhance database performance. Here's a comprehensive list:
Database Normalization: Database normalization is a design technique that is widely used when designing databases. It reduces data redundancy and improves the integrity of your database.
Query Optimization: Write efficient SQL queries by avoiding SELECT *, using JOINs rather than sub-queries, using WHERE instead of HAVING where possible, etc.
Caching: Cache frequently accessed data to avoid unnecessary queries. Many DBMS have built-in caching features, but external tools like Redis can be very effective as well.
Partitioning and Sharding: Large tables can be partitioned into smaller ones, which can be queried more efficiently. Sharding refers to distributing data across multiple databases.
Regular Monitoring and Maintenance: Regularly monitor the database and its performance metrics. Keep an eye on slow queries, analyze them and optimize if needed. Regular maintenance includes tasks like updating statistics, rebuilding indexes, detecting and fixing corruption.
Use Connection Pooling: Opening a database connection is an expensive operation. Connection pooling allows you to reuse existing connections, reducing the overhead of establishing a new connection for every query.
Hardware and Software: Make sure your server hardware and software is adequate for your database size and load. This could include memory size, CPU power, disk space, network bandwidth, etc.
Data Archiving: Archive old data that is not frequently accessed. This reduces the size of your database and makes queries faster.
Use Prepared Statements: Prepared statements help avoid SQL injection attacks and they are more efficient if you're executing a particular SQL command repeatedly.
Implementing these best practices can bring significant improvements to your database's performance.