PostgreSQL manages its own in-memory cache known as the "shared buffer cache". It's a portion of system memory where frequently accessed data pages are stored to minimize direct disk I/O operations, thus improving overall database performance.
By default, the size of this cache is relatively small, which is not optimal for large databases. You can adjust the size of the shared buffer cache by modifying the
shared_buffers configuration parameter in the
postgresql.conf file. This should be done with consideration of your server's total memory and workload.
Please note that PostgreSQL also relies on the operating system's cache management, so it's recommended not to allocate all available memory for PostgreSQL's shared buffers.
In addition, you can use the
EXPLAIN ANALYZE command to understand how your queries are performing and whether they are utilizing the cache efficiently. If you see sequential scans instead of index scans, it means that your queries are not using the cache optimally:
PostgreSQL also offers other caching mechanisms like caching the results of functions or using Materialized Views to cache the result of complex queries. You can use these features depending upon your specific use case.
Keep in mind, optimizing cache utilization requires a solid understanding of your application's data access patterns and careful tuning of several PostgreSQL parameters. Always test changes in a controlled environment before applying them to production systems.