Question: How do you handle replication conflicts in PostgreSQL?


PostgreSQL offers several replication solutions, including streaming replication and logical replication, each with its own mechanism for handling conflicts. Conflicts in replication can occur for various reasons, such as simultaneous updates to the same row on both the primary and standby servers. Understanding and resolving these conflicts is crucial for maintaining the consistency and reliability of your database systems. Here's an overview of how to handle replication conflicts in PostgreSQL:

Streaming Replication Conflicts

Streaming replication in PostgreSQL is typically synchronous or asynchronous and primarily used for high availability, load balancing, and read scaling. In streaming replication, conflicts are less common because write operations happen only on the primary server. However, issues might arise if the standby is promoted to primary and changes have occurred that were not yet replicated. To minimize potential conflicts:

  1. Ensure Synchronous Commit: For critical data, configure synchronous_commit to on or remote_apply. This ensures that transactions are considered committed only when the changes are safely stored on the standby.

    ALTER SYSTEM SET synchronous_commit = 'on';
  2. Promotion and Timeline Switching: When promoting a standby to a primary, ensure that clients switch to the new primary smoothly to prevent split-brain scenarios. Use tools like PgBouncer for connection pooling and redirection.

Logical Replication Conflicts

Logical replication allows more flexibility, including replicating between different major versions of PostgreSQL and partial database replication. However, it introduces more opportunities for conflicts, especially in bidirectional replication setups or when replicating subsets of data. To handle conflicts in logical replication:

  1. Conflict Detection and Resolution: PostgreSQL logs conflict events in the pg_stat_replication view. Regular monitoring of this view can help in identifying conflicts early. Resolving conflicts usually requires manual intervention, such as deciding which version of the conflicting row should prevail.

    SELECT * FROM pg_stat_replication;
  2. Row-level Conflict Avoidance: Design your application logic to minimize conflict chances. For example, use UUIDs instead of sequential IDs to reduce key conflicts, or partition data so that writes are isolated to specific partitions unlikely to be edited simultaneously in different locations.

  3. Use Extensions for Conflict Handling: Extensions such as BDR (Bi-Directional Replication) provide additional mechanisms to automatically resolve certain types of conflicts, though they may require careful configuration and understanding of the trade-offs involved.


Handling replication conflicts in PostgreSQL requires a combination of preventive measures, monitoring, and sometimes manual resolution. The choice between streaming and logical replication impacts the nature and frequency of conflicts, with logical replication presenting a more complex scenario. Effective conflict management strategies are essential for maintaining the integrity and performance of replicated PostgreSQL databases.

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