Question: How does performance compare between PostgreSQLs ANY and IN operators?


In PostgreSQL, both the ANY and IN operators are used to check if a value exists within an array or a list of values. The choice between using ANY or IN can sometimes affect query performance, but it depends largely on the context of the query.

Understanding ANY and IN

IN Operator: The IN operator allows you to specify multiple values in a WHERE clause. It is equivalent to multiple OR conditions.

SELECT * FROM employees WHERE department_id IN (1, 2, 3);

ANY Operator: The ANY operator is used with arrays or subqueries. It returns true if any element of an array (or a subquery result) matches the condition.

SELECT * FROM employees WHERE department_id = ANY(ARRAY[1, 2, 3]);

Performance Considerations

  • Indexing: Both IN and ANY can effectively use indexes on the column being queried. However, their ability to optimize query performance through indexes depends on how PostgreSQL's query planner interprets the data and available indexes.

  • Handling Large Lists: When dealing with a large number of elements, IN can be less efficient than ANY because IN translates into multiple OR conditions which might make the query plan more complex. In contrast, when using ANY with an array, PostgreSQL handles it as a single condition which can be more straightforward for the query planner to optimize.

  • Subqueries: When using subqueries, ANY is generally more flexible and potentially more efficient than using IN with a subquery. This is because IN with a subquery might need to evaluate all results of the subquery before applying the condition, whereas ANY can stop checking once it finds a match.

Example Query Comparison

Consider a scenario where you have a table named 'orders' and you want to find orders that belong to certain categories:

Using IN:

SELECT * FROM orders WHERE category_id IN (SELECT category_id FROM categories WHERE active = TRUE);

Using ANY:

SELECT * FROM orders WHERE category_id = ANY(SELECT category_id FROM categories WHERE active = TRUE);

In practical scenarios, the difference in performance between these two might be negligible unless the list of values is very large or the subquery is particularly complex. It's often valuable to test both methods in your specific environment to see which performs better.


Both ANY and IN are powerful tools in PostgreSQL for querying against a set of values. While they often perform similarly, ANY can offer slight performance benefits in certain contexts, especially with larger datasets or complex subqueries. However, the best approach depends heavily on the particular use case and database schema, so performance testing is recommended.

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