BullMQ is a Node.js library that provides a robust queue system based on Redis. It's an advanced version of Bull, improved with a more sophisticated design and feature set. Here's an overview of BullMQ's architecture:
Job Model: At its core, BullMQ operates by creating jobs, which are essentially tasks to be processed. Each job can carry data and options.
Queue System: Jobs are organized into Queues, where they await processing. These queues could either be FIFO (First In First Out) or prioritized depending on implementation.
Workers: The workers are the actual processes that pick up jobs from the queue for execution. They run independently and can be scaled up or down separately from your main application process.
Events: Events provide a way to listen for changes in the state of jobs. For example, you can set up listeners to get notified when a job has been completed, failed, etc.
Schedulers: Schedulers allow you to schedule jobs to be added to a queue at specific times. It's useful for recurring tasks, like cleaning up old data every night.
Rate Limiter: To avoid overloading systems, BullMQ includes built-in rate limiter functionality which limits the number of jobs processed within a given time frame.
Persistence: Since it's powered by Redis, jobs aren't lost when the process shuts down - they'll still be in the queue when the process comes back up.
Here's a simple example of how to use BullMQ to create a queue, add a job to it, and set up a worker to process jobs:
This example illustrates the basic parts of BullMQ's architecture, but keep in mind that real-world usage often involves a lot more, including handling job events, using rate limiters, and so on.