A low latency in-memory database is designed to provide extremely quick response times by storing data directly in the main memory of a computer rather than on traditional disk drives. This type of database is predominantly used where vast amounts of data must be processed in real-time or near-real-time.
In-memory databases work by storing all the data in the primary memory (RAM) of a computer system. Because accessing data in RAM is significantly faster than from disk storage, operations can be executed with minimal latency.
Here is a simplified illustration of an in-memory database system:
The application communicates directly with the in-memory database. The in-memory database may also interact with disk storage for persistence, to prevent data loss in case of system failure.
However, not all in-memory databases persist data to disk; some are just caching systems like Redis, where the data is expected to be ephemeral. Disk persistence can also be done asynchronously or during less busy periods to minimize the performance impact.
For example, here's a basic usage in Redis, an open-source in-memory database that provides high-performance data types:
This simple example illustrates the speed and ease-of-use of in-memory databases.
It should be noted that due to the volatile nature of most forms of RAM, steps must be taken to ensure data integrity in the event of a power loss or system failure, such as utilizing persistent memory, synchronous replication to a secondary system, or periodic saves to a more durable storage medium.
In summary, a low latency in-memory database allows for rapid data access and manipulation by keeping data in system memory, thus increasing performance and decreasing response time, especially beneficial in applications requiring real-time data processing.