Memcached is a high-performance, distributed memory object caching system that is often used to speed up dynamic database-driven websites and other data-centric solutions by caching data in RAM. However, as with any technology, using Memcached at scale can pose certain challenges.
Cache invalidation: Determining when and how to invalidate or update a cache entry becomes a tough problem at scale.
Node failures: When you are running multiple Memcached nodes for scalability, another problem is handling node failures elegantly. If a node fails, the clients would need to know about it so they don't keep trying to access it.
Data partitioning: Memcached does not natively provide a means of distributing data across multiple servers - it leaves that responsibility to the client. This could result in an imbalance of data storage and uneven load distribution.
Memory Limitations: Memcached stores all data in memory for fast retrieval, but this could mean memory limitations on a single server, making it hard to scale up.
Cold Cache Problem: When a new node is added to the network, it starts out with no data, i.e., a "cold cache". It may take time for the new node to warm up and reach its full potential.
Handling node failures: Use a smart client that can detect node failures and redistribute the keys among the remaining active nodes. Libraries like Spymemcached and Ketama are used for consistent hashing, which helps address this issue.
Data Partitioning: Implement a consistent hashing algorithm to distribute keys uniformly across nodes, thereby addressing the problem of hot spots.
Memory Limitations: Vertical scaling (adding more memory to a node) can temporarily alleviate memory issues. To effectively scale horizontally, you might consider using a distributed caching system designed for large-scale deployments, such as Redis.
Cold Cache Problem: Introduce new nodes gradually to minimize impact on performance. Also, consider pre-warming caches if your use case allows it.
Remember, the right solution depends on the specifics of your application and infrastructure. It's crucial to monitor your Memcached instances regularly and adjust your strategies as needed.